Applying Population Ecology: The Human Population and its Impact
Miller: Living in the Environment
I. Is the World Overpopulated?
a. What will be the Earth’s population in 2050?
b. Where will most of the population increase occur?
c. Give 3 arguments as to why the Earth is overpopulated today.
d. Give 3 arguments why the Earth is not overpopulated today.
e. What are some problems with controlling population growth?
II. Human Population Growth: A Brief History
a. Population Growth in the Past
i. List 3 major factors for the rapid population increase in the last 200 years.
b. Population Growth Today: Slowing but Still Growing
i. What is the current growth rate of the human population?
ii. How many people are added to the planet every year at this rate?
iii. What is the growth rate in a developed country? A developing country?
c. Where are we headed?
i. What do scientific studies of other species tell us about population growth?
ii. What did Thomas Malthus say about population growth and food supplies? Was he right or wrong? Why?
iii. What is happening to natural capital as human populations grow?
iv. How does the change in natural capital hurt humans in the long run?
III. Factors Affecting Human Population Size
a. Birth Rates and Death Rates: Entrances and Exits
i. What is the equation for calculating population change?
ii. Define crude birth rate.
iii. Define crude death rate.
iv. Using figure 9-3, identify the regions of the world with the highest and lowest birth rates and death rates.
v. List the top 10 most populous nations with their current populations.
b. Declining Fertility Rates: Fewer Babies per Woman
i. What is fertility?
ii. Describe replacement-level fertility.
iii. Why is Replacement level fertility rate higher in developing countries?
iv. What is total fertility rate (TFR)?
v. What is the TFR for developed and developing countries?
Study: Fertility and Birth Rates in the
i. What is the period between 1946-1964 known as? Why?
What are the 2 reasons why the
What is the projected
Identify 3 changes that have occurred in the
d. Factors Affecting Birth Rates and Fertility Rates
i. List and describe 10 factors affecting birth rates and fertility rates.
e. Factors Affecting Death Rates
i. What is the major cause of world population growth over the past 100 years?
ii. List 5 reasons why the death rate has declined.
iii. What is life expectancy?
iv. What is infant mortality rate?
v. Compare the life expectancy in developed and developing countries.
vi. What is the best measure of a societies quality of life? Why?
vii. Compare the infant mortality rate in developed and developing countries.
viii. What are 3 factors that have kept US Infant mortality rates higher than they could be?
f. Case Study: US Immigration
i. Which 5 countries encourage immigration?
ii. List 4 reasons why people emigrate.
iii. What percentage of population growth does immigration account for?
What are 3 arguments in favor of reducing immigration
What are 3 arguments against reducing immigration to
IV. Population Age Structure
a. Age Structure Diagrams
i. Using figure 9-9, describe the age structure of countries with rapid, slow, zero and negative population growth rates.
b. Effects of Age structure on Population Growth: Teenagers Rule
i. Why do countries with large numbers of people under the age of 15 have the ability to greatly increase in population size?
ii. Look at figure 9-10 and compare the demographics of developed countries with developing countries.
iii. List 3 consequences of rapid population growth.
c. Using Age Structure Diagrams to Make Population and Economic Projects
i. Explain how changes in a country’s age groups, like the baby boomers, can have economic and social impacts.
d. Stable Populations in Some Countries
i. Where are stable or declining countries located in the world? Why?
What is happening to
Study) Family Planning In
How did Ayatoliah Khomeini
change family planning in
What was the population growth in
iii. How did the policy change in 1989?
iv. List 3 actions taken by the government to encourage small families.
f. Rapid Population Decline from Declining Fertility Rates: Demographic Liabilities
i. Explain how a population decline can have detrimental economic effects?
How can the
g. Global Aging and Military Power: Peace Dividends
i. List 3 reasons why aging will make military actions more difficult.
h. Population Decline from a Rising Death Rate: The AIDS Tragedy
i. What countries have rising Death rates because of AIDS?
ii. What population does AIDS effect the most?
iii. What could happen to life expectancy in HIV riddled countries?
iv. What happens to the workforce in countries with high rates of AIDS?
v. What are 2 goals of an AIDS intervention program?
V. Solutions: Influencing Population Size
a. The Demographic Transition
i. What is the demographic transition?
ii. List and describe the 4 stages of the demographic transition. Explain the changes in population in each stage.
b. Can the World’s Developing Countries Make a Demographic Transition?
i. Explain 2 reasons why countries may not make it to stage 3 or4 of the demographic transition.
c. Family Planning: Planning for Babies Works
i. What is family planning? What services are provided with family planning?
ii. List 2 major problems that remain, despite the successes of family planning.
iii. What are 3 other solutions to additionally reduce births.
d. Empowering Women: Ensuring Education, Jobs, and Human Rights
i. What are 3 key factors that lead women to have fewer, healthier children?
ii. List 10 jobs that women do the majority of around the world.
iii. What does Thorya Obaid mean by her quote” Many of the women in the developing world are trapped in poverty by illiteracy, poor health, and unwanted high fertility.”
iv. How can we empower women around the world?
e. Solutions: Reducing Population Growth
i. List the 9 goals of the population plan created in 1994.
ii. What are the best 3 ways to slow population growth?
Slowing Population Growth in
List 3 problems in
List 3 problems with
What is happening to
What is the average fertility in
vii. What is the family planning policy in Andra Pradesh?
viii. Describe 4 ways the state of Kerala has stabilized population growth and raised its quality of life.
What did Chinese leaders conclude about
Why is there a gender imbalance in
vi. What is one consequence of this gender imbalance?
What are 2 concerns with having fewer children in
viii. List 3 environmental problems caused by china’s growing population.
VII. Human Impacts on Natural Systems
a. Effects of Humans on Natural Ecosystems: Our Big Footprints
i. What percentage of the Earth’s Land have we affected?
ii. Using figure 9-17, list 8 ways we have altered nature to meet our needs.
iii. List and identify 2 challenges we face in the future.
b. Spotlight: Ecological Surprises
Describe the chain of unforeseen side effects that
occurred after a village in