Investigation and Experimentation
1) What is a Hypothesis?
A) A suggested solution to a problem, based on observations or facts that can be tested through further investigation
B) Documented information, especially information organized for analysis or decision-making.
C) A well-substantiated statement, used to explain a phenomenon, that is generally accepted as valid.
D) A proposition inferred from the results of experimentation.
2) What is a Theory?
A) A documented information, especially information organized for analysis or dicision - making
B) A tentative explanation for certain observations or facts that can be tested through further investigation.
C) a proposition inferred from the results of experimentation
D) A well-substantiated statement, based on a hypothesis, used to explain a phenomenon, that is generally accepted as valid and is based on repeated observation and experimentation.
3) An experiment or observation is reproducible when -
A) The test organism is fertile.
B) The results are identical or very similar each time the experiment is conducted.
C) The protocol is well-written and can be followed precisely in different laboratories
D) All statistical variability is eliminated.
4) What is a variable?
A) An experimental result that changes with repeated trials
B) A step in an experiment that can be performed in different ways but still produces similar results
C) A factor whose value may vary over the course of an experiment.
D) None of the above.
5) Why are controlled parameters necessary in experimental design?
A) To ensure that only the intended variable are influencing the outcome of the test.
B) To eliminate statistical variability in the results
C) To facilitate the formation of a hypothesis.
D) To ensure the conclusion from the experiment will become a theory.
6) What is Data?
B) The Scientific Method
D) A unit of Measurement
7) Why do scientists design experiments?
A) to resolve an anomaly ( A deviation from the common rule)
B) To gather information
C) To gain funding or support for an argument or theory.
D) All of the Above
8) What is the Scientific method?
A) a suggestion that is a result of experimentation
B) A long period of observations
C) A model, or guide, used to solve problems
D) A scientific experiment
9) The First step of the scientific Method
A) Forming a hypothesis
B) Making an observation
C) Performing an experiment
D) Predicting the Results of a Experiment
10 ) What is empirical evidence?
A) Evidence from observation that can be observed by many people and all will agree.
B) Evidence that is not dependent on a single observer but appears the same no matter who observes the evidence.
C) Research that derives its data by means of direct observation or experimentation.
D) All of the Above
11) The scientific method was developed to help scientists organize the process of
12) Which of these is not a step of the scientific method?
13) Which of these words would you NOT associate with the scientific
14) What do you do to test a hypothesis?
B) Create a Spreadsheet with Data
C) Design an Experiment
D) Publish a Scientific Paper
15) A control group is used as a comparison to the group where things (variables) are changing.
16)Experiments are usually conducted one time and by one team to speed up the scientific process.
17) Experiments often test multiple variables.
B) False *Test for only one variable
18) A pattern or relationship that has been established based on large amounts of experimental data is a :
19) The second step to the scientific method is to state the "problem", the scientific question to be solved. What is one requirement that needs to be fulfilled in order for the "problem" to be valid?
A) It needs to be a problem that has a number of answers
B) It needs to be a problem that can be solved experimentally
C) It needs to be a problem that has a yes or no answer
D) None of the above
20) When completing an experiment, you are testing your hypothesis. What are the three kinds of variables that you need to identify in your experiments?
A) Independent, controlled, and dependent
B) Independent, Dependent, and identical
C) Both A and B
D) Neither A or B is correct
21) In the conclusion of an experiment, can you leave out experimental results that do no support your hypothesis?
22) Ultimately, all scientific knowledge comes from:
D) both experimentation & observation
23) A scientist testing the affects of a chemical on apple yeild sprays an orchard with the chemical. A second orchard does not receive the chemical. In the fall, the number of apples harvested from each forest is counted. Which of the following is the independent (manipulated) variable in the experiment?
A) the chemical
B) the number of apples
C) the first orchard
D) the second orchard
24) The orchard sprayed with the chemical yeilds an average of 60 apples per tree, the other orchard yields an average of 40 apples per tree. Based on the data, the scientist would:
A) report his data
B) test the chemical on other plants
C) determine that the chemical increases apple yield
D) determine that the results were inconclusive
25) In order for the apple tree experiment to be valid scientifically, both orchards must:
A) receive the same amount of sunlight
B) receive the same amount of water
C) have the same species of apple tree
D) all of these
26) An experiment is being done to determine how light affects the growth of sunflower plants. One plant is placed in full sunlight, the second in a shaded area, the third in an unlit closet. What is the independent variable in the experiment?
A) The type of plants
B) The amount of light
C) The growth of the plant
D) The type of soil
E) The length of the experiment
27) An experiment should only be done once, or you might come up with different and confusing results.
28) Which is not an observation?
A) My cat is black and white
B) My cat is fat
C) My cat is hungry
D) My cat is eating.
The scientific method is an objective step-by-step way of looking at natural events. When anyone has a question about the world around them, they use these methods and procedures to explain and answer that question. The scientific method can also be used to prove (or disprove) the statements of another scientist or person. The entire process requires observable and quantifiable evidence and data.